Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts are organized around four strands: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language.
Overarching standards are provided for each strand, and these are further defined by grade-specific standards.
The standards for the Reading strand:
- promote progressive development of reading comprehension.
- emphasize the importance of grade-level texts that are of appropriate difficulty and are increasingly sophisticated.
- include exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade.
The standards for the Writing strand:
- expect students to compose arguments and opinions, informative/explanatory pieces, and narrative texts.
- focus on the use of reason and evidence to substantiate an argument or claim.
- emphasize the ability to conduct research.
- require students to incorporate technology as they create, refine, and collaborate on writing.
- include student writing samples that illustrate the criteria required to meet the standards.
Speaking and Listening
The standards for Speaking and Listening:
- focus on speaking and listening in a range of settings, both formal and informal, including academic, small-group, and whole-class discussions.
- emphasize effective communication practices.
- require interpretation and analysis of message as presented through oral, visual, or multimodal formats.
The standards for the Language strand:
- include conventions for writing and speaking.
- highlight the importance of vocabulary acquisition through a mix of conversation, direct instruction, and reading.
- are to be addressed in the contexts of reading, writing, and speaking and listening.
Reading and Writing Standards for Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
The standards for the Reading strand focus on:
- knowledge of domain-specific vocabulary.
- the ability to analyze, evaluate, and differentiate primary and secondary sources.
- the ability to synthesize quantitative and technical information, including facts presented in maps, timelines, flowcharts, and diagrams.
The standards for the Writing strand focus on:
- the ability to write arguments on discipline-specific content and informative/explanatory texts.
- use of data, evidence, and reason to support arguments and claims.
- use of domain-specific vocabulary.