Research Reports: 1987–1990

Download any of these reports in Portable Document Format (PDF).

For printed copies of ACT Research Reports or for additional information about ACT research, please email us at


Changes in PEP Test Scores for Students Who Have Tested More Than OnceR. Sawyer & C. J. Welch.

Project CHOICE: Validity of Interest and Ability Measures for Student Choice of Vocational ProgramD. J. Prediger, J. Dale, & W. E. Brandt.

Generalizing Criterion-related Validity Evidence on Certification Requirements Across Situations and Specialty AreasM. T. Kane.

An Investigation of Methods for Improving Estimation of Test Score DistributionB. A. Hanson.

A Study of Methods for Estimating Distributions of Test ScoresR. T. Cope & M. J. Kolen.

Computerized Test Construction Using an Average Growth Approximation of Target Information FunctionsR. M. Luecht & T. M. Hirsch.

Mapping Career Groups on Basic Interest DimensionW. Mau, K. Swaney, & D. J. Prediger.

Comparison of Two Logistic Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models (Research Report ONR90-8) J. A. Spray, T. C. Davey, M. D. Reckase, T. A. Ackerman, & J. E. Carlson.

Differential Test and Item Performance of Talented Youth and High School Seniors on the ACTA. E. Doolittle & C. J. Welch.

Course Placement Practices of American Postsecondary InstitutionsT. McNabb.

Mapping Occupations: A Longitudinal Study Based on Vocational InterestsR. R. Vansickle & D. J. Prediger.

Congeneric Models and Levine's Linear Equating ProceduresR. L. Brennan.

An Argument-based Approach to ValidationM. T. Kane.

Detecting and Correcting for Rater Effects in Performance AssessmentM. R. Raymond & W. M. Houston.


A Comparison of the Effects of Random Versus Fixed Order of Item Presentation Via the ComputerT. A. Ackerman, J. A. Spray, M. D. Reckase, & J. E. Carlson.

A Comparison of the Angoff, Beuk, and Hofstee Methods for Setting a Passing ScoreJ. J. Bowers & R. R. Shindoll.

Application of Equipercentile Techniques to Test Scale Construction: Scaling and Equating of the ACT ASSET Placement Test BatteryR. T. Cope.

Validating the Use of ACT Assessment Scores and High School Grades for Remedial Course Placement in College R. Sawyer.

Differential Coursework and Grades in High School: Implications for Performance on the ACT AssessmentJ. Noble & T. McNabb.

Gender-based Differential Item Performance in English Usage ItemsC. J. Welch &A. E. Doolittle.

Performance of Three Conditional DIF Statistics in Detecting Differential Item Functioning on Simulated TestsJ. A. Spray.

Differential Performance on a Direct Measure of Writing Skills for Black and White College FreshmenC. J. Welch, A. E. Doolittle, & J. McLarty.

Gender Differences in Performance on a College-Level Achievement TestA. E. Doolittle & C. J. Welch.


Accuracy of Self-Reported High School Courses and Grades of College-Bound StudentsR. Sawyer, J. Laing, & W. Houston.

Comparison of Item Preequating and Random Groups Equating Using IRT and Equipercentile MethodsM. J. Kolen & D. J. Harris.

Comparison of Loglinear and Logistic Regression Models for Detecting Changes in ProportionsJ. A. Spray & J. E. Carlson.

Central Prediction Systems for Predicting Specific Course GradesW. Houston & R. Sawyer.


The Accuracy of Self-Reported High School Course and Grade InformationM. J. Valiga.

Career Counseling Validity of the ASVAB Job Cluster Scales Used in DISCOVERD. J. Prediger.

Relationships Between ACT Test Scores and High School CoursesJ. Laing, H. B. Engen, & J. Maxey.

Determining Minimum Sample Sizes for Estimating Prediction Equations for College Freshman Grade AverageR. Sawyer.

Effect of Comparability of Examinee Groups on EquatingD. J. Harris.

Accuracy of Self-Reported Activities and Accomplishments of College-Bound StudentsJ. Laing, R. Sawyer, & J. P. Noble.

The Bootstrap and Other Procedures for Examining the Variability of Estimated Variance Components in Testing ContextsR. L. Brennan, D. J. Harris, & B. A. Hanson.

Using Collateral Information from Similar Institutions to Predict College Freshman Grade AverageW. M. Houston.

A General Model for Item DependencyT. Ackerman & J. A. Spray.

The Effect of Item Response Dependency on Trait or Ability DimensionalityJ. A. Spray & T. Ackerman.

Effects of Item Difficulty Heterogeneity on the Estimation of True-Score and Classification ConsistencyJ. A. Spray & C. J. Welch.

A Comparison Study of the Unidimensional IRT Estimation of Compensatory and Noncompensatory Multidimensional Item Response DataT. Ackerman.

The Use of Unidimensional Item Parameter Estimates of Multidimensional Items in Adaptive TestingT. Ackerman.

The Robustness of LOGIST and BILOG IRT Estimation Programs to Violations of Local IndependenceT. Ackerman.

A Comparison of Several Statistical Methods for Examining Allegations of CopyingB. A. Hanson, D. J. Harris, & R. L. Brennan.

Gender Differences in Performance on Mathematics Achievement Items A. E. Doolittle.

The Effect of Item Parameter Estimation Error on Decisions Made Using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (Research Report ONR87-1)J. A. Spray & M. D. Reckase.

A Procedure to Adjust Individual Scores for Construct Invalidity L. M. Gamache.

Multidimensional Item Response Theory Estimation: A Computer Program (Research Report ONR87-2)J. E. Carlson.

Predicting Grades in Specific College Freshman Courses from ACT Test Scores and Self-Reported High School GradesJ. P. Noble & R. Sawyer.