Number and Quantity 
 apply and use elementary number concepts and properties to model realworld and mathematical problems
 describe the difference between a rational number and an irrational number
 use integer exponents to express repeated multiplication
 describe the relationship between exponents and roots
 understand the meaning of a vector, and identify examples of vector quantities

Algebra and Functions 
 model realworld and mathematical problems that involve a combination of rates, proportions, and/or percents
 create functions, and use characteristics of basic function families (e.g., linear, absolute value, quadratic) to model realworld and mathematical problems
 graph linear equations and inequalities, determine slopes of lines, identify parallel and perpendicular lines, and find distances

Algebra 
 apply algebraic properties to rewrite simple expressions in equivalent forms (e.g., rationalize denominators)
 model realworld and mathematical problems, using systems of two linear equations or inequalities
 explore and use different methods to solve systems of equations

Functions 
 write expressions for composite functions

Geometry 
 apply a variety of strategies that use relationships between perimeter, area, and volume to calculate desired measures
 model appropriate geometric objects as a composite of circles, semicircles, triangles, and/or rectangles
 apply special righttriangle properties and the Pythagorean theorem to solve realworld and mathematical problems involving congruent and similar shapes
 use basic trigonometric ratios to solve problems involving indirect measurement
 graph linear equations and inequalities, determine slopes of lines, identify parallel and perpendicular lines, and find distances
 identify characteristics of figures from a general equation

Statistics and Probability 
 find the probability of simple, disjoint, compound, and independent events in a variety of realworld and mathematical problems, using a variety of counting techniques
 construct and analyze Venn diagrams to help determine simple probabilities
 distinguish between independent and dependent events, and provide examples of each
 identify and describe examples of events that are conditional
