ACT College and Career Readiness Standards
Measuring the skills and knowledge essential to success
Giving Clearer Meaning to Test Scores
What sets ACT assessments apart
The ACT College and Career Readiness Standards are the backbone of ACT assessments.
The standards are empirically derived descriptions of the essential skills and knowledge students need to become ready for college and career, giving clear meaning to test scores and serving as a link between what students have learned and what they are ready to learn next. Parents, teachers, counselors, and students use the standards to:
 Communicate widely shared learning goals and expectations
 Relate test scores to the skills needed in high school and beyond
 Understand the increasing complexity of skills needed across the score ranges in English, mathematics, reading, science, and writing
The standards encompass the many paths available to students after high school, and they reflect our ability to provide insights related to both college and career readiness.
View or Print the Standards
Note:
 Standards are provided for each English test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges.
View or print the set of English Standards (PDF, 12 pages) and English Curriculum Review Worksheets (PDF, 8 pages).
Production of Writing
Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 


Topic Development in Terms of Purpose and Focus (TOD) 
TOD 201. Delete material because it is obviously irrelevant in terms of the topic of the essay

TOD 301. Delete material because it is obviously irrelevant in terms of the focus of the essay TOD 302. Identify the purpose of a word or phrase when the purpose is simple (e.g., identifying a person, defining a basic term, using common descriptive adjectives) TOD 303. Determine whether a simple essay has met a straightforward goal

TOD 401. Determine relevance of material in terms of the focus of the essay TOD 402. Identify the purpose of a word or phrase when the purpose is straightforward (e.g., describing a person, giving examples) TOD 403. Use a word, phrase, or sentence to accomplish a straightforward purpose (e.g., conveying a feeling or attitude)

TOD 501. Determine relevance of material in terms of the focus of the paragraph TOD 502. Identify the purpose of a word, phrase, or sentence when the purpose is fairly straightforward (e.g., identifying traits, giving reasons, explaining motivations) TOD 503. Determine whether an essay has met a specified goal TOD 504. Use a word, phrase, or sentence to accomplish a fairly straightforward purpose (e.g., sharpening an essay’s focus, illustrating a given statement)

TOD 601. Determine relevance when considering material that is plausible but potentially irrelevant at a given point in the essay TOD 602. Identify the purpose of a word, phrase, or sentence when the purpose is subtle (e.g., supporting a later point, establishing tone) or when the best decision is to delete the text in question TOD 603. Use a word, phrase, or sentence to accomplish a subtle purpose (e.g., adding emphasis or supporting detail, expressing meaning through connotation)

TOD 701. Identify the purpose of a word, phrase, or sentence when the purpose is complex (e.g., anticipating a reader’s need for background information) or requires a thorough understanding of the paragraph and essay TOD 702. Determine whether a complex essay has met a specified goal TOD 703. Use a word, phrase, or sentence to accomplish a complex purpose, often in terms of the focus of the essay

Organization, Unity, and Cohesion (ORG) 
ORG 201. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish time relationships in simple narrative essays (e.g., then,this time)

ORG 301. Determine the most logical place for a sentence in a paragraph ORG 302. Provide a simple conclusion to a paragraph or essay (e.g., expressing one of the essay’s main ideas)

ORG 401.Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish straightforward logical relationships (e.g., first,afterward, in response) ORG 402.Determine the most logical place for a sentence in a straightforward essay ORG 403. Provide an introduction to a straightforward paragraph ORG 404. Provide a straightforward conclusion to a paragraph or essay (e.g., summarizing an essay’s main idea or ideas) ORG 405.Rearrange the sentences in a straightforward paragraph for the sake of logic

ORG 501.Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish subtle logical relationships within and between sentences (e.g.,therefore, however,in addition) ORG 502. Provide a fairly straightforward introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay (e.g., supporting or emphasizing an essay’s main idea) ORG 503.Rearrange the sentences in a fairly straightforward paragraph for the sake of logic ORG 504.Determine the best place to divide a paragraph to meet a particular rhetorical goal ORG 505.Rearrange the paragraphs in an essay for the sake of logic

ORG 601.Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish subtle logical relationships within and between paragraphs ORG 602.Determine the most logical place for a sentence in a fairly complex essay ORG 603. Provide a subtle introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay (e.g., echoing an essay’s theme or restating the main argument) ORG 604.Rearrange the sentences in a fairly complex paragraph for the sake of logic and coherence

ORG 701.Determine the need for transition words or phrases, basing decisions on a thorough understanding of the paragraph and essay ORG 702. Provide a sophisticated introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay, basing decisions on a thorough understanding of the paragraph and essay (e.g., linking the conclusion to one of the essay’s main images)

Knowledge of Language
Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 


Knowledge of Language (KLA)  KLA 201. Revise vague, clumsy, and confusing writing that creates obvious logic problems

KLA 301. Delete obviously redundant and wordy material KLA 302. Revise expressions that deviate markedly from the style and tone of the essay

KLA 401. Delete redundant and wordy material when the problem is contained within a single phrase (e.g., “alarmingly startled,” “started by reaching the point of beginning”) KLA 402. Revise expressions that deviate from the style and tone of the essay KLA 403. Determine the need for conjunctions to create straightforward logical links between clauses KLA 404. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is relatively common

KLA 501. Revise vague, clumsy, and confusing writing KLA 502. Delete redundant and wordy material when the meaning of the entire sentence must be considered KLA 503. Revise expressions that deviate in subtle ways from the style and tone of the essay KLA 504. Determine the need for conjunctions to create logical links between clauses KLA 505. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is uncommon

KLA 601. Revise vague, clumsy, and confusing writing involving sophisticated language KLA 602. Delete redundant and wordy material that involves fairly sophisticated language (e.g., “the outlook of an aesthetic viewpoint”) or that sounds acceptable as conversational English KLA 603. Determine the need for conjunctions to create subtle logical links between clauses KLA 604. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is fairly sophisticated

KLA 701. Delete redundant and wordy material that involves sophisticated language or complex concepts or where the material is redundant in terms of the paragraph or essay as a whole KLA 702. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is sophisticated

Conventions of Standard English Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation
Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 


Sentence Structure and Formation (SST)  SST 201. Determine the need for punctuation or conjunctions to join simple clauses SST 202. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense between simple clauses in a sentence or between simple adjoining sentences

SST 301. Determine the need for punctuation or conjunctions to correct awkwardsounding fragments and fused sentences as well as obviously faulty subordination and coordination of clauses SST 302. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense and voice when the meaning of the entire sentence must be considered

SST 401. Recognize and correct marked disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., faulty placement of adjectives, participial phrase fragments, missing or incorrect relative pronouns, dangling or misplaced modifiers, lack of parallelism within a simple series of verbs)

SST 501. Recognize and correct disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., faulty placement of phrases, faulty coordination and subordination of clauses, lack of parallelism within a simple series of phrases) SST 502. Maintain consistent and logical verb tense and pronoun person on the basis of the preceding clause or sentence

SST 601. Recognize and correct subtle disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., danglers where the intended meaning is clear but the sentence is ungrammatical, faulty subordination and coordination of clauses in long or involved sentences) SST 602. Maintain consistent and logical verb tense and voice and pronoun person on the basis of the paragraph or essay as a whole

SST 701. Recognize and correct very subtle disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., weak conjunctions between independent clauses, runons that would be acceptable in conversational English, lack of parallelism within a complex series of phrases or clauses)

Usage Conventions (USG)  USG 201. Form the past tense and past participle of irregular but commonly used verbs USG 202. Form comparative and superlative adjectives

USG 301. Determine whether an adjective form or an adverb form is called for in a given situation USG 302. Ensure straightforward subjectverb agreement USG 303. Ensure straightforward pronounantecedent agreement USG 304. Use idiomatically appropriate prepositions in simple contexts USG 305. Use the appropriate word in frequently confused pairs (e.g., there andtheir, past andpassed, led andlead)

USG 401. Use the correct comparative or superlative adjective or adverb form depending on context (e.g., “He is the oldest of my three brothers”) USG 402. Ensure subjectverb agreement when there is some text between the subject and verb USG 403. Use idiomatically appropriate prepositions, especially in combination with verbs (e.g., long for,appeal to) USG 404.Recognize and correct expressions that deviate from idiomatic English

USG 501. Form simple and compound verb tenses, both regular and irregular, including forming verbs by using haverather than of (e.g.,would have gone, not would of gone) USG 502. Ensure pronounantecedent agreement when the pronoun and antecedent occur in separate clauses or sentences USG 503.Recognize and correct vague and ambiguous pronouns

USG 601. Ensure subjectverb agreement in some challenging situations (e.g., when the subjectverb order is inverted or when the subject is an indefinite pronoun) USG 602. Correctly use reflexive pronouns, the possessive pronouns its andyour, and the relative pronounswho and whom USG 603. Use the appropriate word in lesscommon confused pairs (e.g.,allude and elude)

USG 701. Ensure subjectverb agreement when a phrase or clause between the subject and verb suggests a different number for the verb USG 702. Use idiomatically and contextually appropriate prepositions in combination with verbs in situations involving sophisticated language or complex concepts

Punctuation Conventions (PUN)  PUN 201. Delete commas that create basic sense problems (e.g., between verb and direct object)

PUN 301. Delete commas that markedly disturb sentence flow (e.g., between modifier and modified element) PUN 302. Use appropriate punctuation in straightforward situations (e.g., simple items in a series)

PUN 401. Delete commas when an incorrect understanding of the sentence suggests a pause that should be punctuated (e.g., between verb and direct object clause) PUN 402. Delete apostrophes used incorrectly to form plural nouns PUN 403. Use commas to avoid obvious ambiguity (e.g., to set off a long introductory element from the rest of the sentence when a misreading is possible) PUN 404. Use commas to set off simple parenthetical elements

PUN 501. Delete commas in long or involved sentences when an incorrect understanding of the sentence suggests a pause that should be punctuated (e.g., between the elements of a compound subject or compound verb joined by and) PUN 502.Recognize and correct inappropriate uses of colons and semicolons PUN 503. Use punctuation to set off complex parenthetical elements PUN 504. Use apostrophes to form simple possessive nouns

PUN 601. Use commas to avoid ambiguity when the syntax or language is sophisticated (e.g., to set off a complex series of items) PUN 602. Use punctuation to set off a nonessential/ nonrestrictive appositive or clause PUN 603. Use apostrophes to form possessives, including irregular plural nouns PUN 604. Use a semicolon to link closely related independent clauses

PUN 701. Delete punctuation around essential/restrictive appositives or clauses PUN 702. Use a colon to introduce an example or an elaboration

Ideas for Progress Score Range 1–12 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 13–15 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 16–19 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 20–23 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 24–27 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 28–32 
Note:
 Standards are provided for each Mathematics Test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges.
 Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges.
 Students who achieve the 28–32 level are likely able to use variables fluently so that they can solve problems with variables in the same way that they can solve the problems with numbers, and they can use variables to represent general properties.
 Because Algebra and Functions are closely connected, some standards apply to both categories. These have the abbreviation AF and are listed in both categories.
View or print the set of Mathematics Standards (PDF, 12 pages) and Mathematics Curriculum Review Worksheets (PDF, 11 pages).
Topics in the flow to...  Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 

Number and Quantity (N)  N 201. Perform oneoperation computation with whole numbers and decimals N 202. Recognize equivalent fractions and fractions in lowest terms N 203. Locate positive rational numbers (expressed as whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and mixed numbers) on the number line

N 301. Recognize onedigit factors of a number N 302. Identify a digit’s place value N 303. Locate rational numbers on the number line Note: A matrix as a representation of data is treated here as a basic table.

N 401. Exhibit knowledge of elementary number concepts such as rounding, the ordering of decimals, pattern identification, primes, and greatest common factor N 402. Write positive powers of 10 by using exponents N 403. Comprehend the concept of length on the number line, and find the distance between two points N 404. Understand absolute value in terms of distance N 405. Find the distance in the coordinate plane between two points with the same xcoordinate or ycoordinate N 406. Add two matrices that have whole number entries

N 501. Order fractions N 502. Find and use the least common multiple N 503. Work with numerical factors N 504. Exhibit some knowledge of the complex numbers N 505. Add and subtract matrices that have integer entries

N 601. Apply number properties involving prime factorization N 602. Apply number properties involving even/odd numbers and factors/multiples N 603. Apply number properties involving positive/negative numbers N 604. Apply the facts that π is irrational and that the square root of an integer is rational only if that integer is a perfect square N 605. Apply properties of rational exponents N 606. Multiply two complex numbers N 607. Use relations involving addition, subtraction, and scalar multiplication of vectors and of matrices

N 701. Analyze and draw conclusions based on number concepts N 702. Apply properties of rational numbers and the rational number system N 703. Apply properties of real numbers and the real number system, including properties of irrational numbers N 704. Apply properties of complex numbers and the complex number system N 705. Multiply matrices N 706. Apply properties of matrices and properties of matrices as a number system

Topics in the flow to...  Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 
Algebra (A)  AF 201. Solve problems in one or two steps using whole numbers and using decimals in the context of money A 201. Exhibit knowledge of basic expressions (e.g., identify an expression for a total as b + g) A 202. Solve equations in the form x + a = b, where a and b are whole numbers or decimals

AF 301. Solve routine onestep arithmetic problems using positive rational numbers, such as singlestep percent AF 302. Solve some routine twostep arithmetic problems AF 303. Relate a graph to a situation described qualitatively in terms of familiar properties such as before and after, increasing and decreasing, higher and lower AF 304. Apply a definition of an operation for whole numbers (e.g., a ◘ b = 3a – b) A 301. Substitute whole numbers for unknown quantities to evaluate expressions A 302. Solve onestep equations to get integer or decimal answers A 303. Combine like terms (e.g., 2x + 5x)

AF 401. Solve routine twostep or threestep arithmetic problems involving concepts such as rate and proportion, tax added, percentage off, and estimating by using a given average value in place of actual values AF 402. Perform straightforward wordtosymbol translations AF 403. Relate a graph to a situation described in terms of a starting value and an additional amount per unit (e.g., unit cost, weekly growth) A 401. Evaluate algebraic expressions by substituting integers for unknown quantities A 402. Add and subtract simple algebraic expressions A 403. Solve routine firstdegree equations A 404. Multiply two binomials A 405. Match simple inequalities with their graphs on the number line (e.g., x≥ –35x≥ –35 ) A 406. Exhibit knowledge of slope

AF 501. Solve multistep arithmetic problems that involve planning or converting common derived units of measure (e.g., feet per second to miles per hour) AF 502. Build functions and write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common prealgebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions) AF 503. Match linear equations with their graphs in the coordinate plane A 501. Recognize that when numerical quantities are reported in realworld contexts, the numbers are often rounded A 502. Solve realworld problems by using firstdegree equations A 503. Solve firstdegree inequalities when the method does not involve reversing the inequality sign A 504. Match compound inequalities with their graphs on the number line (e.g., –10.5 < x ≤ 20.3) A 505. Add, subtract, and multiply polynomials A 506. Identify solutions to simple quadratic equations A 507. Solve quadratic equations in the form (x + a)(x + b) = 0, where a and b are numbers or variables A 508. Factor simple quadratics (e.g., the difference of squares and perfect square trinomials) A 509. Work with squares and square roots of numbers A 510. Work with cubes and cube roots of numbers A 511. Work with scientific notation A 512. Work problems involving positive integer exponents A 513. Determine when an expression is undefined A 514. Determine the slope of a line from an equation

AF 601. Solve word problems containing several rates, proportions, or percentages AF 602. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities for common algebra settings (e.g., distance to a point on a curve and profit for variable cost and demand) AF 603. Interpret and use information from graphs in the coordinate plane AF 604. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by a specified amount up or down A 601. Manipulate expressions and equations A 602. Solve linear inequalities when the method involves reversing the inequality sign A 603. Match linear inequalities with their graphs on the number line A 604. Solve systems of two linear equations A 605. Solve quadratic equations A 606. Solve absolute value equations

AF 701. Solve complex arithmetic problems involving percent of increase or decrease or requiring integration of several concepts (e.g., using several ratios, comparing percentages, or comparing averages) AF 702. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities when the process requires planning and/or strategic manipulation AF 703. Analyze and draw conclusions based on properties of algebra and/or functions AF 704. Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from graphs in the coordinate plane AF 705. Identify characteristics of graphs based on a set of conditions or on a general equation such as y = ax² + c AF 706. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by specified amounts in the horizontal and vertical directions A 701. Solve simple absolute value inequalities A 702. Match simple quadratic inequalities with their graphs on the number line A 703. Apply the remainder theorem for polynomials, that P(a) is the remainder when P(x) is divided by (x – a)

Topics in the flow to...  Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 
Functions (F)  AF 201. Solve problems in one or two steps using whole numbers and using decimals in the context of money F 201. Extend a given pattern by a few terms for patterns that have a constant increase or decrease between terms

AF 301. Solve routine onestep arithmetic problems using positive rational numbers, such as singlestep percent AF 302. Solve some routine twostep arithmetic problems AF 303. Relate a graph to a situation described qualitatively in terms of familiar properties such as before and after, increasing and decreasing, higher and lower AF 304. Apply a definition of an operation for whole numbers (e.g., a ◘ b = 3a – b) F 301. Extend a given pattern by a few terms for patterns that have a constant factor between terms

AF 401. Solve routine twostep or threestep arithmetic problems involving concepts such as rate and proportion, tax added, percentage off, and estimating by using a given average value in place of actual values AF 402. Perform straightforward wordtosymbol translations AF 403. Relate a graph to a situation described in terms of a starting value and an additional amount per unit (e.g., unit cost, weekly growth) F 401. Evaluate linear and quadratic functions, expressed in function notation, at integer values

AF 501. Solve multistep arithmetic problems that involve planning or converting common derived units of measure (e.g., feet per second to miles per hour) AF 502. Build functions and write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common prealgebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions) AF 503. Match linear equations with their graphs in the coordinate plane F 501. Evaluate polynomial functions, expressed in function notation, at integer values F 502. Find the next term in a sequence described recursively F 503. Build functions and use quantitative information to identify graphs for relations that are proportional or linear F 504. Attend to the difference between a function modeling a situation and the reality of the situation F 505. Understand the concept of a function as having a welldefined output value at each valid input value F 506. Understand the concept of domain and range in terms of valid input and output, and in terms of function graphs F 507. Interpret statements that use function notation in terms of their context F 508. Find the domain of polynomial functions and rational functions F 509. Find the range of polynomial functions F 510. Find where a rational function’s graph has a vertical asymptote F 511. Use function notation for simple functions of two variables

AF 601. Solve word problems containing several rates, proportions, or percentages AF 602. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities for common algebra settings (e.g., distance to a point on a curve and profit for variable cost and demand) AF 603. Interpret and use information from graphs in the coordinate plane AF 604. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by a specified amount up or down F 601. Relate a graph to a situation described qualitatively in terms of faster change or slower change F 602. Build functions for relations that are inversely proportional F 603. Find a recursive expression for the general term in a sequence described recursively F 604. Evaluate composite functions at integer values

AF 701. Solve complex arithmetic problems involving percent of increase or decrease or requiring integration of several concepts (e.g., using several ratios, comparing percentages, or comparing averages) AF 702. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities when the process requires planning and/or strategic manipulation AF 703. Analyze and draw conclusions based on properties of algebra and/or functions AF 704. Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from graphs in the coordinate plane AF 705. Identify characteristics of graphs based on a set of conditions or on a general equation such as y = ax² + c AF 706. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by specified amounts in the horizontal and vertical directions F 701. Compare actual values and the values of a modeling function to judge model fit and compare models F 702. Build functions for relations that are exponential F 703. Exhibit knowledge of geometric sequences F 704. Exhibit knowledge of unit circle trigonometry F 705. Match graphs of basic trigonometric functions with their equations F 706. Use trigonometric concepts and basic identities to solve problems F 707. Exhibit knowledge of logarithms F 708. Write an expression for the composite of two simple functions

Topics in the flow to...  Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 
Geometry (G)  G 201. Estimate the length of a line segment based on other lengths in a geometric figure G 202. Calculate the length of a line segment based on the lengths of other line segments that go in the same direction (e.g., overlapping line segments and parallel sides of polygons with only right angles) G 203. Perform common conversions of money and of length, weight, mass, and time within a measurement system (e.g., dollars to dimes, inches to feet, and hours to minutes)

G 301. Exhibit some knowledge of the angles associated with parallel lines G 302. Compute the perimeter of polygons when all side lengths are given G 303. Compute the area of rectangles when whole number dimensions are given G 304. Locate points in the first quadrant

G 401. Use properties of parallel lines to find the measure of an angle G 402. Exhibit knowledge of basic angle properties and special sums of angle measures (e.g., 90°, 180°, and 360°) G 403. Compute the area and perimeter of triangles and rectangles in simple problems G 404. Find the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle when only very simple computation is involved (e.g., 345 and 6810 triangles) G 405. Use geometric formulas when all necessary information is given G 406. Locate points in the coordinate plane G 407. Translate points up, down, left, and right in the coordinate plane

G 501. Use several angle properties to find an unknown angle measure G 502. Count the number of lines of symmetry of a geometric figure G 503. Use symmetry of isosceles triangles to find unknown side lengths or angle measures G 504. Recognize that realworld measurements are typically imprecise and that an appropriate level of precision is related to the measuring device and procedure G 505. Compute the perimeter of simple composite geometric figures with unknown side lengths G 506. Compute the area of triangles and rectangles when one or more additional simple steps are required G 507. Compute the area and circumference of circles after identifying necessary information G 508. Given the length of two sides of a right triangle, find the third when the lengths are Pythagorean triples G 509. Express the sine, cosine, and tangent of an angle in a right triangle as a ratio of given side lengths G 510. Determine the slope of a line from points or a graph G 511. Find the midpoint of a line segment G 512. Find the coordinates of a point rotated 180° around a given center point

G 601. Use relationships involving area, perimeter, and volume of geometric figures to compute another measure (e.g., surface area for a cube of a given volume and simple geometric probability) G 602. Use the Pythagorean theorem G 603. Apply properties of 30°60°90°, 45°45°90°, similar, and congruent triangles G 604. Apply basic trigonometric ratios to solve righttriangle problems G 605. Use the distance formula G 606. Use properties of parallel and perpendicular lines to determine an equation of a line or coordinates of a point G 607. Find the coordinates of a point reflected across a vertical or horizontal line or across y = x G 608. Find the coordinates of a point rotated 90° about the origin G 609. Recognize special characteristics of parabolas and circles (e.g., the vertex of a parabola and the center or radius of a circle)

G 701. Use relationships among angles, arcs, and distances in a circle G 702. Compute the area of composite geometric figures when planning and/or visualization is required G 703. Use scale factors to determine the magnitude of a size change G 704. Analyze and draw conclusions based on a set of conditions G 705. Solve multistep geometry problems that involve integrating concepts, planning, and/or visualization

Topics in the flow to...  Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 
Statistics and Probability (S)  S 201. Calculate the average of a list of positive whole numbers S 202. Extract one relevant number from a basic table or chart, and use it in a single computation

S 301. Calculate the average of a list of numbers S 302. Calculate the average given the number of data values and the sum of the data values S 303. Read basic tables and charts S 304. Extract relevant data from a basic table or chart and use the data in a computation S 305. Use the relationship between the probability of an event and the probability of its complement

S 401. Calculate the missing data value given the average and all data values but one S 402. Translate from one representation of data to another (e.g., a bar graph to a circle graph) S 403. Determine the probability of a simple event S 404. Describe events as combinations of other events (e.g., using and, or, and not) S 405. Exhibit knowledge of simple counting techniques

S 501. Calculate the average given the frequency counts of all the data values S 502. Manipulate data from tables and charts S 503. Compute straightforward probabilities for common situations S 504. Use Venn diagrams in counting S 505. Recognize that when data summaries are reported in the real world, results are often rounded and must be interpreted as having appropriate precision S 506. Recognize that when a statistical model is used, model values typically differ from actual values

S 601. Calculate or use a weighted average S 602. Interpret and use information from tables and charts, including twoway frequency tables S 603. Apply counting techniques S 604. Compute a probability when the event and/or sample space are not given or obvious S 605. Recognize the concepts of conditional and joint probability expressed in realworld contexts S 606. Recognize the concept of independence expressed in realworld contexts

S 701. Distinguish between mean, median, and mode for a list of numbers S 702. Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from tables and charts, including twoway frequency tables S 703. Understand the role of randomization in surveys, experiments, and observational studies S 704. Exhibit knowledge of conditional and joint probability S 705. Recognize that part of the power of statistical modeling comes from looking at regularity in the differences between actual values and model values

Ideas for Progress Score Range 1–12 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 13–15 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 16–19 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 20–23 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 24–27 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 28–32 
Note:
 Standards are provided for each Reading Test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges.
View or print the set of Reading Standards (PDF, 21 pages) and Reading Curriculum Review Worksheets (PDF, 9 pages).
Key Ideas and Details
Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 


Close Reading (CLR)  CLR 201. Locate basic facts (e.g., names, dates, events) clearly stated in a passage CLR 202. Draw simple logical conclusions about the main characters in somewhat challenging literary narratives

CLR 301. Locate simple details at the sentence and paragraph level in somewhat challenging passages CLR 302. Draw simple logical conclusions in somewhat challenging passages

CLR 401. Locate important details in somewhat challenging passages CLR 402. Draw logical conclusions in somewhat challenging passages CLR 403. Draw simple logical conclusions in more challenging passages CLR 404. Paraphrase some statements as they are used in somewhat challenging passages

CLR 501. Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in somewhat challenging passages CLR 502. Locate important details in more challenging passages CLR 503. Draw subtle logical conclusions in somewhat challenging passages CLR 504. Draw logical conclusions in more challenging passages CLR 505. Paraphrase virtually any statement as it is used in somewhat challenging passages CLR 506. Paraphrase some statements as they are used in more challenging passages

CLR 601. Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in more challenging passages CLR 602. Locate important details in complex passages CLR 603. Draw subtle logical conclusions in more challenging passages CLR 604. Draw simple logical conclusions in complex passages CLR 605. Paraphrase virtually any statement as it is used in more challenging passages

CLR 701. Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in complex passages CLR 702. Locate important details in highly complex passages CLR 703. Draw logical conclusions in complex passages CLR 704. Draw simple logical conclusions in highly complex passages CLR 705. Draw complex or subtle logical conclusions, often by synthesizing information from different portions of the passage CLR 706. Paraphrase statements as they are used in complex passages

Central Ideas, Themes, and Summaries (IDT)  IDT 201. Identify the topic of passages and distinguish the topic from the central idea or theme

IDT 301. Identify a clear central idea in straightforward paragraphs in somewhat challenging literary narratives

IDT 401. Infer a central idea in straightforward paragraphs in somewhat challenging literary narratives IDT 402. Identify a clear central idea or theme in somewhat challenging passages or their paragraphs IDT 403. Summarize key supporting ideas and details in somewhat challenging passages

IDT 501. Infer a central idea or theme in somewhat challenging passages or their paragraphs IDT 502. Identify a clear central idea or theme in more challenging passages or their paragraphs IDT 503. Summarize key supporting ideas and details in more challenging passages

IDT 601. Infer a central idea or theme in more challenging passages or their paragraphs IDT 602. Summarize key supporting ideas and details in complex passages

IDT 701. Identify or infer a central idea or theme in complex passages or their paragraphs IDT 702. Summarize key supporting ideas and details in highly complex passages

Relationships (REL)  REL 201. Determine when (e.g., first, last, before, after) an event occurs in somewhat challenging passages REL 202. Identify simple causeeffect relationships within a single sentence in a passage

REL 301. Identify clear comparative relationships between main characters in somewhat challenging literary narratives REL 302. Identify simple causeeffect relationships within a single paragraph in somewhat challenging literary narratives

REL 401. Order simple sequences of events in somewhat challenging literary narratives REL 402. Identify clear comparative relationships in somewhat challenging passages REL 403. Identify clear causeeffect relationships in somewhat challenging passages

REL 501. Order sequences of events in somewhat challenging passages REL 502. Understand implied or subtly stated comparative relationships in somewhat challenging passages REL 503. Identify clear comparative relationships in more challenging passages REL 504. Understand implied or subtly stated causeeffect relationships in somewhat challenging passages REL 505. Identify clear causeeffect relationships in more challenging passages

REL 601. Order sequences of events in more challenging passages REL 602. Understand implied or subtly stated comparative relationships in more challenging passages REL 603. Identify clear comparative relationships in complex passages REL 604. Understand implied or subtly stated causeeffect relationships in more challenging passages REL 605. Identify clear causeeffect relationships in complex passages

REL 701. Order sequences of events in complex passages REL 702. Understand implied or subtly stated comparative relationships in complex passages REL 703. Identify clear comparative relationships in highly complex passages REL 704. Understand implied or subtly stated causeeffect relationships in complex passages REL 705. Identify clear causeeffect relationships in highly complex passages

Craft and Structure
Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 


Word Meanings and Word Choice (WME)  WME 201. Understand the implication of a familiar word or phrase and of simple descriptive language

WME 301. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in somewhat challenging passages when the effect is simple WME 302. Interpret basic figurative language as it is used in a passage

WME 401. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in somewhat challenging passages WME 402. Interpret most words and phrases as they are used in somewhat challenging passages, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings

WME 501. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in somewhat challenging passages when the effect is subtle WME 502. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in more challenging passages WME 503. Interpret virtually any word or phrase as it is used in somewhat challenging passages, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings WME 504. Interpret most words and phrases as they are used in more challenging passages, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings 
WME 601. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in complex passages WME 602. Interpret virtually any word or phrase as it is used in more challenging passages, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings WME 603. Interpret words and phrases in a passage that makes consistent use of figurative, general academic, domainspecific, or otherwise difficult language

WME 701. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in passages when the effect is subtle or complex WME 702. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in complex passages, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings WME 703. Interpret words and phrases in a passage that makes extensive use of figurative, general academic, domainspecific, or otherwise difficult language

Text Structure (TST)  TST 201. Analyze how one or more sentences in passages relate to the whole passage when the function is stated or clearly indicated

TST 301. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages relate to the whole passage when the function is simple TST 302. Identify a clear function of straightforward paragraphs in somewhat challenging literary narratives

TST 401. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages relate to the whole passage TST 402. Infer the function of straightforward paragraphs in somewhat challenging literary narratives TST 403. Identify a clear function of paragraphs in somewhat challenging passages TST 404. Analyze the overall structure of somewhat challenging passages

TST 501. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages relate to the whole passage when the function is subtle TST 502. Analyze how one or more sentences in more challenging passages relate to the whole passage TST 503. Infer the function of paragraphs in somewhat challenging passages TST 504. Identify a clear function of paragraphs in more challenging passages TST 505. Analyze the overall structure of more challenging passages 
TST 601. Analyze how one or more sentences in complex passages relate to the whole passage TST 602. Infer the function of paragraphs in more challenging passages TST 603. Analyze the overall structure of complex passages

TST 701. Analyze how one or more sentences in passages relate to the whole passage when the function is subtle or complex TST 702. Identify or infer the function of paragraphs in complex passages TST 703. Analyze the overall structure of highly complex passages

Purpose and Point of View (PPV)  PPV 201. Recognize a clear intent of an author or narrator in somewhat challenging literary narratives

PPV 301. Recognize a clear intent of an author or narrator in somewhat challenging passages

PPV 401. Identify a clear purpose of somewhat challenging passages and how that purpose shapes content and style PPV 402. Understand point of view in somewhat challenging passages

PPV 501. Infer a purpose in somewhat challenging passages and how that purpose shapes content and style PPV 502. Identify a clear purpose of more challenging passages and how that purpose shapes content and style PPV 503. Understand point of view in more challenging passages 
PPV 601. Infer a purpose in more challenging passages and how that purpose shapes content and style PPV 602. Understand point of view in complex passages

PPV 701. Identify or infer a purpose in complex passages and how that purpose shapes content and style PPV 702. Understand point of view in highly complex passages

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 


Arguments (ARG)  ARG 201. Analyze how one or more sentences in passages offer reasons for or support a claim when the relationship is clearly indicated

ARG 301. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages offer reasons for or support a claim when the relationship is simple

ARG 401. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages offer reasons for or support a claim ARG 402. Identify a clear central claim in somewhat challenging passages

ARG 501. Analyze how one or more sentences in more challenging passages offer reasons for or support a claim ARG 502. Infer a central claim in somewhat challenging passages ARG 503. Identify a clear central claim in more challenging passages 
ARG 601. Analyze how one or more sentences in complex passages offer reasons for or support a claim ARG 602. Infer a central claim in more challenging passages

ARG 701. Analyze how one or more sentences in passages offer reasons for or support a claim when the relationship is subtle or complex ARG 702. Identify or infer a central claim in complex passages ARG 703. Identify a clear central claim in highly complex passages 
Multiple Texts (SYN)  SYN 201. Make simple comparisons between two passages  SYN 301. Make straightforward comparisons between two passages  SYN 401. Draw logical conclusions using information from two literary narratives

SYN 501. Draw logical conclusions using information from two informational texts  SYN 601. Draw logical conclusions using information from multiple portions of two literary narratives  SYN 701. Draw logical conclusions using information from multiple portions of two informational texts 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 1–12 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 13–15 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 16–19 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 20–23 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 24–27 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 28–32 
Note:
 Standards are provided for each Science Test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges.
View or print the set of Science Standards (PDF, 7 pages) and Science Curriculum Review Worksheets (PDF, 5 pages)
Score Range 13–15 
Score Range 16–19 
Score Range 20–23 
Score Range 24–27 
Score Range 28–32 
Score Range 33–36 


Interpretation of Data (IOD) 
IOD 201. Select one piece of data from a simple data presentation (e.g., a simple food web diagram) IOD 202. Identify basic features of a table, graph, or diagram (e.g., units of measurement) IOD 203. Find basic information in text that describes a simple data presentation

IOD 301. Select two or more pieces of data from a simple data presentation IOD 302.Understand basic scientific terminology IOD 303. Find basic information in text that describes a complex data presentation IOD 304. Determine how the values of variables change as the value of another variable changes in a simple data presentation

IOD 401. Select data from a complex data presentation (e.g., a phase diagram) IOD 402. Compare or combine data from a simple data presentation (e.g., order or sum data from a table) IOD 403. Translate information into a table, graph, or diagram IOD 404. Perform a simple interpolation or simple extrapolation using data in a table or graph

IOD 501. Compare or combine data from two or more simple data presentations (e.g., categorize data from a table using a scale from another table) IOD 502. Compare or combine data from a complex data presentation IOD 503. Determine how the values of variables change as the value of another variable changes in a complex data presentation IOD 504. Determine and/or use a simple (e.g., linear) mathematical relationship that exists between data IOD 505. Analyze presented information when given new, simple information 
IOD 601. Compare or combine data from a simple data presentation with data from a complex data presentation IOD 602. Determine and/or use a complex (e.g., nonlinear) mathematical relationship that exists between data IOD 603. Perform a complex interpolation or complex extrapolation using data in a table or graph 
IOD 701. Compare or combine data from two or more complex data presentations IOD 702. Analyze presented information when given new, complex information


Scientific Investigation (SIN)  SIN 201. Find basic information in text that describes a simple experiment SIN 202. Understand the tools and functions of tools used in a simple experiment 
SIN 301. Understand the methods used in a simple experiment SIN 302. Understand the tools and functions of tools used in a complex experiment SIN 303. Find basic information in text that describes a complex experiment 
SIN 401.Understand a simple experimental design SIN 402.Understand the methods used in a complex experiment SIN 403. Identify a control in an experiment SIN 404. Identify similarities and differences between experiments SIN 405. Determine which experiments utilized a given tool, method, or aspect of design 
SIN 501.Understand a complex experimental design SIN 502. Predict the results of an additional trial or measurement in an experiment SIN 503. Determine the experimental conditions that would produce specified results 
SIN 601. Determine the hypothesis for an experiment SIN 602. Determine an alternate method for testing a hypothesis 
SIN 701.Understand precision and accuracy issues SIN 702. Predict the effects of modifying the design or methods of an experiment SIN 703. Determine which additional trial or experiment could be performed to enhance or evaluate experimental results 

Evaluation of Models, Inferences, and Experimental Results (EMI)  EMI 201. Find basic information in a model (conceptual)  EMI 301. Identify implications in a model EMI 302. Determine which models present certain basic information 
EMI 401. Determine which simple hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion is, or is not, consistent with a data presentation, model, or piece of information in text EMI 402. Identify key assumptions in a model EMI 403. Determine which models imply certain information EMI 404. Identify similarities and differences between models 
EMI 501. Determine which simple hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion is, or is not, consistent with two or more data presentations, models, and/or pieces of information in text EMI 502. Determine whether presented information, or new information, supports or contradicts a simple hypothesis or conclusion, and why EMI 503. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of models EMI 504. Determine which models are supported or weakened by new information EMI 505. Determine which experimental results or models support or contradict a hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion 
EMI 601. Determine which complex hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion is, or is not, consistent with a data presentation, model, or piece of information in text EMI 602. Determine whether presented information, or new information, supports or weakens a model, and why EMI 603. Use new information to make a prediction based on a model 
EMI 701. Determine which complex hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion is, or is not, consistent with two or more data presentations, models, and/or pieces of information in text EMI 702. Determine whether presented information, or new information, supports or contradicts a complex hypothesis or conclusion, and why 

Ideas for Progress Score Range 1–12 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 13–15 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 16–19 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 20–23 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 24–27 
Ideas for Progress Score Range 28–32 
Note:
 Scores below 3 do not permit useful generalizations about students’ writing abilities.
View or print the set of Writing Standards (PDF, 5 pages) and Writing Curriculum Review Worksheets (PDF, 5 pages).
Score Range 34 
Score Range 56 
Score Range 78 
Score Range 910 
Score Range 1112 


Expressing Judgements (EXJ) 
EXJ 201. Show a little understanding of the persuasive purpose of the task but neglect to take or to maintain a position on the issue in the prompt EXJ 202. Generate reasons for a position that are irrelevant or unclear 
EXJ 301. Show a basic understanding of the persuasive purpose of the task by taking a position on the issue in the prompt EXJ 302. Generate reasons for a position that are vague or simplistic; show a little recognition of the complexity of the issue in the prompt by

EXJ 401. Show clear understanding of the persuasive purpose of the task by taking a position on the issue in the prompt and offering some context for discussion EXJ 402. Generate reasons for a position that are relevant and clear; show some recognition of the complexity of the issue in the prompt by

EXJ 501. Show strong understanding of the persuasive purpose of the task by taking a position on the specific issue in the prompt and offering a broad context for discussion EXJ 502. Generate thoughtful reasons for a position; show recognition of the complexity of the issue in the prompt by

EXJ 601. Show advanced understanding of the persuasive purpose of the task by taking a position on the specific issue in the prompt and offering a critical context for discussion EXJ 602. Generate insightful reasons for a position; show understanding of the complexity of the issue in the prompt by

Focusing on the Topic (FOC) 
FOC 201. Maintain a focus on the general topic in the prompt throughout most of the essay 
FOC 301. Maintain a focus on the general topic in the prompt throughout the essay 
FOC 401. Maintain a focus on the specific issue in the prompt throughout most of the essay FOC 402. Present a thesis that establishes focus on the topic 
FOC 501. Maintain a focus on discussing the specific issue in the prompt throughout the essay FOC 502. Present a thesis that establishes a focus on the writer’s position on the issue 
FOC 601. Maintain a precise focus on discussing the specific issue in the prompt throughout the essay FOC 602. Present a critical thesis that clearly establishes the focus on the writer’s position on the issue 
Developing Ideas (DEV) 
DEV 201. Offer little development in support of ideas; attempt to clarify ideas by merely restating them or by using general examples that may not be clearly relevant DEV 202. Show little or no movement between general and specific ideas and examples 
DEV 301. Offer limited development in support of ideas; clarify ideas somewhat with vague explanation and the use of general examples DEV 302. Show little movement between general and specific ideas and examples 
DEV 401. Provide adequate development in support of ideas; clarify ideas by using some specific reasons, details, and examples DEV 402. Show some movement between general and specific ideas and examples 
DEV 501. Provide thorough development in support of ideas; extend ideas by using specific, logical reasons and illustrative examples DEV 502. Show clear movement between general and specific ideas and examples 
DEV 601. Provide ample development in support of ideas; substantiate ideas with precise use of specific, logical reasons and illustrative examples DEV 602. Show effective movement between general and specific ideas and examples 
Organizing Ideas (ORI) 
ORI 201. Provide a discernible organizational structure by grouping together a few ideas ORI 202. Use transitional words and phrases that are simple and obvious, or occasionally misleading ORI 203. Present a minimal introduction and conclusion 
ORI 301. Provide a simple organizational structure by logically grouping some ideas ORI 302. Use simple and obvious transitional words and phrases ORI 303. Present an underdeveloped introduction and conclusion 
ORI 401. Provide an adequate but simple organizational structure by logically grouping most ideas ORI 402. Use some appropriate transitional words and phrases ORI 403. Present a somewhat developed introduction and conclusion 
ORI 501. Provide a coherent organizational structure with some logical sequencing of ideas ORI 502. Use accurate and clear transitional words and phrases to convey logical relationships between ideas ORI 503. Present a generally welldeveloped introduction and conclusion 
ORI 601. Provide a unified, coherent organizational structure that presents a logical progression of ideas ORI 602. Use precise transitional words, phrases, and sentences to convey logical relationships between ideas ORI 603. Present a welldeveloped introduction that effectively frames the prompt’s issue and writer’s argument; present a welldeveloped conclusion that extends the essay’s ideas 
Using Language (USL) 
USL 201. Show limited control of language by

USL 301. Show a basic control of language by

USL 401. Show adequate use of language to communicate by

USL 501. Show competent use of language to communicate ideas by

USL 601. Show effective use of language to communicate ideas clearly by

Ideas for Progress 
Ideas for Progress 
Ideas for Progress 
Ideas for Progress 
Ideas for Progress 
Score Range 34 
Score Range 34 
How ACT Assessments Align with State College and Career Readiness Standards
This white paper looks at how college and career readiness is measured. Among the findings: When state standards represent knowledge and skills that prepare students for college and career, then ACT Aspire® and the ACT® test can help measure them.
 DOWNLOAD WHITE PAPER [ PDF  194.1KB  4PGs ]
Ongoing Process of Validity Research at ACT
ACT is committed to validity research. The first type of validity research ACT conducts is content validity, designed to answer the following question: Does a test measure what it aims to measure? This essentially involves the validation of the ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, which are built on a foundation of years of empirical data.
Tools used in the validation process include the ACT National Curriculum Survey^{®}. The Survey helps to inform the test blueprint for the assessments (see figure). Results from the assessments are used to validate the ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, as well as the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks. (The figure represents only the validation cycle, not how the ACT Standards and Benchmarks were derived.)
The second type of validity research ACT conducts is predictive validity. This research uses data about actual course performance to answer a second question: Does a test predict performance in a reliable way?
Constant monitoring enables ACT to ensure that—for ACT assessments at least—the answer to the questions of content validity and predictive validity is “yes.” We continually use research and performance results to inform the changes we will make to test blueprints, the ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, and the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks.
ACT National Curriculum Survey
Examining educational practices and expectations
Conducted every three to five years by ACT, the ACT National Curriculum Survey collects data about what entering college students should know and be able to do to be ready for collegelevel coursework in English, math, reading, and science.
ACT Aspire
Mapping student progress
ACT Aspire maps progress from grades 3  12 on a vertical scale, anchored to the scoring system of the ACT.
Beyond Academics
Planning for future success
Skills in four key areas, beyond academic abilities alone, are critical to college and career success.
Stay Current
What's next for the ACT
We're always improving the ACT, and we keep you informed along the way.